Saw a few and thought they were stunning. I worked with her and her owner for almost 2 years. She taught me so very much. As you stated, I became the student and she became the trainer. Yes, she was beautiful and heart stopping loveable. And in the setting I was dealing with her, she was relatively gentle. But when you looked in her eyes, you knew you could never trust her like you do your dog. I watched her watch things move.
The reason I call it a privilege to be her trainer is because she taught me that she and her kind should not exist. Her owner got a job in Europe. I heard she was shuffled around and shuffled around because no one could handle her and ended up living her life on a isolated and on a chain. Wolves are wild animals and should not be bred to dogs to create something that is supposed to be a pet. It is not fair to the animal. This is a great article! Wolf dogs are indeed a tragedy.
If you love and admire the beauty and wildness of wolves, why destroy that very wildness by trying to own it? It should be illegal. Hoping for the best for Willie. In Norway, where I live, wolfdogs are banned along with pit bull terrier, amerikansk staffordshire terrier amstaff , fila brasileiro ,toso inu and dogo argentino. And as much as oppose breed spesific legislation, I tend to agree with the law on the part of wolfdogs. I ended up in puppy kindergarten with my Samoyed and a wolf dog.
A couple of years later I saw the grown animal competing in an agility trial I have no idea how that was allowed. He was beautiful, but every part of him was NOT a dog. He had a stare that was almost mesmerizing and he watched everything very carefully. I was afraid he was going to grab a small dog and eat it. He certainly appeared to be thinking about it. Even the way he moved was not like the dogs. He ran the agility courses and no one got hurt, but I was one of the people who took her dog outside when he was loose.
He did tolerate strangers, but tolerate is the word. He seemed so far above it all that he allowed us to exist. At one point I was accidentally standing next to him. The feeling from him was always that I had better behave or I would be very sorry. Not sure how anyone got in the house to arrest her. This animal was able to coexist with people and even compete in agility, but it was not a pet.
It was just allowing these things to happen. I cannot imagine how badly things would go it it got annoyed. I live in a rural county on the Eastern Shore of MD. I do agree with everything said in this forum. Let me tell you the story of my Grandmothers wolfdog named Meatloaf. Yes, my grandmother was a Meatloaf fan! She purchased Meat what we called him for short when I was about 3 or 4 years old when he was a young puppy.
He was an extremely energetic puppy. I was always playing with him. I even fell asleep on the floor with him multiple times. As he got older my family noticed he became extremely protective of me. If I ever hurt myself he was right by my side to make sure I was ok. The two of us grew up together you could say. Over the years we started to notice some extreme changes however. Especially in his behavior. Also very strong. He did not like new people period! He would bark and growl and it got to the point that my family made sure to tell everyone he didnt know to stay far from him.
He absolutely loved our family though especially my grandmother and myself. I was about 6 or 7 when tragedy struck. I will never forgot it for as long as I live. A very young friend of mine Ryan and I were playing in his backyard when he got stung by a bee, he was beside himself crying and in pain. His parents at the time were not home.
So I walked him down the road to my grandmothers house. Meanwhile Meat was on his chain outside under a tree tied to a tire full of air with the rim. Like I said before he was a very strong dog and full size at this point. After continuing to tease Ryan he got fed up and pushed me to the ground.
Meat stood up right away seeing what Ryan had done to me, took off in a sprint, snapped the chain, and attacked Ryan! I screamed for my grandmother and she came outside with my grandfather and they restrained him. Meat did not kill Ryan but he did severely hurt him. He had to get stitches. I had to talk to police officers and explain to them that the dog only did it out of defense for me. He saw that Ryan had hurt me and reacted. I tried to take complete blame for what had happened because I was aware that the dog did not like new, unfamiliar people.
They gave my grandmother an option. Either put the dog down, or move out of the neighborhood. So my grandmother picked up everything and left. We loved that dog severely! Especially my grandmother. He was a great dog behind closed doors. He was extremely smart too almost unbelievebly smart! He loved me unconditionally. He saved me from being bitten by a water moccasin! We were on the beach my Grandmother, Meat and I walking along the waters edge. But it was almost under my feet. As soon as he saw it he attacked it and killed it. Im now 22 years old. Meat died a few years ago.
He did however live a long, happy, secluded life. Which is something I believe a wolfdog like him needed greatly. It was very clear how aggressive he could be. I myself have never come into contact with a wolfdog, and I hope I never do. Over the last 18 months I have been dealing with a bloodhound with damaged iliopsoas muscles…. Although breed activity levels are WAY different, our therapy regimes seem to be radically different as well! I was told to minimize crate rest…instead limit her to a single room with a lot of things strewn across the floor so that she had to pick up her feet.
It allowed her to change position often, but not run wildly. They actually did not want crate rest since the therapist felt it encouraged the dogs to go crazy and overdo it when they are let out. Also were lots of wide weave poles turns got narrower as he got better , stand-to-sit-to-stand exercises, and cookie crunches and, 18 months later, she is back to work trailing and leaping on the bed again. LOL Poor Willie!! A tragedy is right! How terribly unfair to be trapped between two worlds, belonging to neither. I have heard of a few coy dogs equally sad and there are the people who claim that their dog is part wolf.
Possibly, they think it makes them seem cool and elevates their status. Usually you meet the dog and it is obviously a yellow lab mix or shepherd collie cross with the most submissive demeanor. Humans are interesting. They also have a wild, keep your distance beauty. Wild dogs should lived in the wild and the heartbreak is that the day will come when there is not enough wild space.
Thank you for your blog. I was delighted when my profile yawn calmed a strange dog who had been agitated by my presence. Thank you for posting about this subject! When I was growing up my family had a boarding kennel, and animals were often abandoned there. One such animal was a male wolfdog — I think there was very little dog in him. He looked like a wolf and was very shy around strangers. One of the kennel workers adopted him, and he seemed to be doing OK affectionate toward his owner but avoided everyone else. He never displayed any aggression, even when he was very scared, until the incident that lead to his death.
This friend and his wife had a six-month old baby. In the middle of the night the animal went upstairs, pushed open the door to the nursery, and tried to pull the baby out of her crib. Needless to say, the animal was euthanized. This poor animal was just doing what his instincts told him to do, and he was in an environment that was totally inappropriate for him. I truly hope that more awareness grows about the problems and dangers of hybrids, and that people stop breeding them. I would think that most of the time, if you put a dog in a pen with a male wolf, the wolf would simply kill the dog.
Is there some sort of black market for wolf semen? Do they accomplish this operation in stupidity artificially? He had two teenage sons, I had two cats. The dog was not overly aggressive as a puppy but became so protective over the boys, he bit one of them because he had taken a ball away from the other one. The cats became prey and I insisted he find the dog another home, which he did. It was a home in the country, and while I wish I could say there was a happy ending, there is not. He killed two other dogs and was euthanized. This beautiful animal was doomed the moment he was conceived, he was a dog one moment and wolf the next.
It broke my heart. I will leave the subject of wolfdogs to others, for now. I came close. But opted out at the last minute. I can relate. The road for all of us, and especially Atka, to get to this point in time was incredibly difficult. But, we arrived here. So, there is hope, undoubtedly, for all of you and especially Willie.
As a kid it was always my dream to have a wolf-dog. Great with the other dogs and cats,shy with strangers but when he did get loose, went out to play with the local kids. Turned down one other job for a female young that was caged in the back yard. Always wondered what ultimatly happened to her. Today,I would not advocate for keeping a hybred.
Thank you for a great article.
Careful what you wish for. I look forward to each new posting from you, and so I took a break from Saturday chores to read emails and see if you had a new topic. But now I am just very sad and somewhat mad. We muck about with things for no real purpose and then wonder why it all goes haywire. Unfortunately, the animals are the recipients of the story not ending well.dmageltroubadno.gq/whats-my-motivation.php
The Tragedy of Wolf Dogs
We move on, they are either stuck in never-never land or killed. But, like Willie, the more physical restrictions there are, the more her mental health takes a slide. As someone very wise told me, be kind to yourself, take care of yourself every once in a while. Yes, there are plenty out west. People like them for the novelty or a status symbol or to compensate for something it seems. Coydogs are a big problem out here also. These animals can never fulfill either of their destinies to the fullest, and that is terribly sad and often frighteningly unsafe as well.
Taming and domestication are not the same thing for the animal or the humans sharing the world with it. I had a recent encounter with an alleged wolf-dog recently and have more to discuss but am pressed for time now. However, I wanted to add to the excellent comment above that dogs evolved from a line of wolves that self-selected to live near us and so already had a set of traits that made them more accepting of humans. And so from what was once a probably larger genetic variation of tolerance of humans from extremely tolerant to intolerant to aggressive towards humans and everything in between we now have left the two extremes: dogs who generally love people, and wolves who are generally afraid of people.
Most of those in the middle have been removed from the gene pool. Mixing those two extremes can only lead to behavioral stress and confusion the vast majority of time. Natural mutation means that yes, there are likely some wolf genes out there that crop up as being more tolerant of human activity. But most of that genetic line is gone. A very interesting article. I had no idea that people were actively crossbreeding wolves and dogs.
We knew the dog so things went well until I was escorting the dog into the kitchen to get its leash for a walk. It was a large dog, its shoulder was just below my chest and its head was just under my chin. Somehow I tripped and landed near his food bowl and when I turned to get up he lunged at me, quickly biting me three times, right forehead, left shoulder, and right upper leg.
Fortunately I was not alone in the kitchen. The bite to my head went clear to the bone so a visit to the local hospital was decided upon where we lived in NYC at the time meant the world famous Bellevue Hospital. I was given a clean wet washcloth and told to keep pressure on the head wound while we went to catch a cab. Several hours of waiting at Bellevue later they wanted a plastic surgeon to sew the wound so it would scar less I had seven stitches in my forehead and bandages on the other wounds for some reason they chose not to stitch them and I have a nice pair of scars on my arm where the fangs sank into my shoulder, I can barely find the three scars on my leg however.
The dog was passed on to another mutual friend while I was at the hospital and I never saw it again, though I understand that it lived out its life with the owner. I still love both dogs and wolves but they really need to be kept from interbreeding, no good comes from it. Once a month, our rescue holds an adoption event at a tractor and feed store in an area, just between where farms and urban living meet.
We have quite the following and usually get a few adoptions every month. One month, I was not able to attend, but our group posted about a man who brought in his pregnant wolf-hybrid to the store. I never knew much about the wolfdog, not something we have too much of to my knowledge here in Ohio, but it never seemed right to me. Wolves are majestic, amazing creatures, and dogs vary from breed to breed.
Your article shed light on it for me and really helped me settle my stance on what I believe, which is that it is wrong and in a sense, messing with nature. A tragic story, these poor creatures, and I can only hope that if the public becomes educated enough, the breeding will stop. I am going to print this out and keep at least one copy in the file box in my car. I groom and train dogs in San Diego and, yes, I have seen enough of these dogs come and go from my area being paraded around by what I would consider to be reckless owners.
The last one either ended up as one of my blog posts, a facebook tirade, or an email to my best friends where I was freaking out. My last experience was of a young wanna-be tough guy who swaggered into the dog wash with his wolfdog where I was filling in for the day. The dog was not on a leash because…guys like this think they have it all under control.
Sometimes I have to follow rules. I am in dire need of rent money. He allowed the dog to roam freely in the store and in the area of the tubs. Another couple with their child wanted to enter the dog wash area. All I could envision was the precious soft skin of a child being permanently mutilated and this dude never having the funds or way to ever make it right.
The dog came right up to the fence with the child—same exact height. I held my breath. I have personally seen and experienced multiple extreme, near death dog-child bites. My parents and I had been invited to dinner on the lake by their workplace friends. A true miracle. The parents were equally as clueless and trusting. When he came to check out at the register, I heard his dog cry. I thought maybe he had accidentally stepped on her foot and was on the floor to comfort her. Of course not. He stopped and managed to leave the store. I cried silently. I was walking around in circles after he left not knowing what to do.
People say what they would do, what I should have done, etc. Later, I learned from the store owner that this same owner had previously owned a husky who knows what happened to it? She said that it did the same thing—took a treat too harshly from his fingers. His reaction?
He bit his own dog on the nose. Hard until she cried. I hardly wish someone an injury, but I would imagine that this might go seriously wrong with a wolfdog at least I hope? The whole thing is beyond heartbreaking to me. Thanks for the blog. Great article, I really appreciate you tackling such a complex problem. I completely agree and am always saddened when people brag about their status symbol wolf-dog hybrid.
Breeders of hybrid dogs and cats sell to whoever buys without any regard for these animals or their unique needs, which I find to be truly disgusting. Goodness…what a heart stoppingly beautiful post Trisha. So sorry to hear that Willie is still not yet fit. Keeping all paws crossed because this too will pass….. The wolf hybrids are at the mercy of human stupidity. Wolf hybrids are socially crippled. What a price they pay for our egotism…death and suffering.
I met what the owner claimed was a wolf hybrid once at the pet supply store.
He looked like a magnificent black wolf. He acted like a big teddy bear. His owner was clearly afraid of him, buried in his ruff were three collars, a prong collar, choke chain, and a flat collar. The leash looked like a boat mooring line and any time the animal did anything the owner would over react. I wondered why on earth anyone would own an animal that clearly frightened them much less take it out in public. I also know a coydog coyote and Aussie that did seem to get the best of both parents. Not having to hunt his meals he had no outlet for that drive except movement and he was always in motion.
They were also retired and avid hiker so he spent a lot of time on trails and a lot of time at the dog park. Personally, I prefer to have my domestic dogs with me and their wild cousins to be admired from afar. All paws crossed for you and Willie. Some days she goes on three legs, some days on four. I wish I knew how to persuade her that this superstition that bouncing up is responsible for her getting what she wants is a superstition and has no basis in reality.
Unfortunately, in her crazy little head bouncing up is strongly associated with getting what she wants even just a trip outside to relieve herself. All good wishes that Willy respond to treatment and is back on active duty soon. I find the tameness of my malamutes their most appealing quality and am grateful to benefit from millennia of adaption to life with humans.
Betsy: Very interesting about the difference in therapeutic approaches to a strained iliopsoas! I suspect one difference though is that Willie is 1 On his way to doing the kind of exercises you describe and he is doing several exercises now already and 2 The problem with Willie is that when he is loose one never knows when he will leap-spin-rocket forward, no matter how much exercise he gets. And he is actually quieter the more he is crated. Thanks for responding, very interesting to compare notes!
Re whether wolves and dogs can truly be interbred: Yup, no question. A wolf may kill a dog that wanders into its territory, but not if the dog is in estrus and the wolf who finds her is a male. There are wolfdogs in my part of the Midwest; I saw a few when grooming at a vet clinic a few years ago. He was about 4 when I know him. We also had a dog? She was very predatory, but also carefully managed. Incidentally, the UKC, that bastion of breed tolerance, will not give you an ILP number to compete with your unregistered or mixed-breed dog unless you swear it is not a wolf hybrid.
I think that about says it. When I started my private obedience training business I had an experience with a wolf-dog puppy. He was about 12 weeks old and we were trying to leash train him. Luring with treats did not work, and when I gave gentle tugs on the lead he reached over fast as a wink and sliced my ankle open.
I had never had experience with a wolf-dog before nor since. I own a boarding kennel and refuse service to any wolf-dogs. Sometimes they end up, much to their shock, with the Real Deal. Very well said! I completely agree. Being in Montana, there are wolf hybrids everywhere. You can get them out of the paper. I got too close one day on accident and he bit my arm. Just a few stitches, but I never blamed the animal. I was pained for him. Still pained for the rest. Excellent article! We have been involved in wolf hybrid rescue for years and its never easy.
At one point, I lived with two low percentage hybrids, and at another time, a wolf-coyote hybrid. It meant adding footers to the fenceline, increasing height of block walls, tons of exercise and trying unsuccessfully to outsmart them. They are not pets. They are closer to being qualified as out-of-control, rebellious, shy pre-teens. Having 2 wolfdogs myself, they are mostly outdoor animals and very happy. They do come into the house when supervised and they were trained not to destroy things.
I can do anything, I can eat dinner, they know not to jump on the table, to steal food, etc. We also go on walks, on city streets, in the park, they even go into stores like Petsmart. I do agree that too many wolf dog breeders give puppies to just anyone and most people are not prepared for these beautiful animals. So I am rather torn… on the one hand I know they can be trained and live happily with a human pack. On the other hand, I hate to see irresponsible breeders just trying to make money, not thinking about these animals.
So should they be bred? Maybe, maybe not. The latter I met in a shopping center parking lot, walked on a flat collar and light lead, by a proud owner who loved to boast of the hybrid. Rex was an amazing dog who slept outside my door and woke up my grandparents when I cried. I spent nearly every weekend out on their 75 acres. Rex would greet strangers and gently but firmly grab their hands until he was told they were OK. I have loved that arc of the canine world ever since.
After college I lived in a group house with four other people. The couple were long time friends of mine who had attended grad school in the northwest where they acquired a magnificent half-wolf female. I guess she was about 2 when I met her. I agree that these critters are a life-style choice.
We would go for five mile runs together or her couple would ride their bikes with her. She was an amazingly good judge of character. But one needed to be able to differentiate whether she was reacting to fear or character flaws in the person she growled at. She loved her pack, and we would all howl together at the Star-trek theme music each evening on TV.
Seeing how she slept under snow drifts was amazing. I lived with her for about a year. She later had puppies, but I was not in close contact with her couple. I fear she died of a broken heart after they divorced. After I got married, we had two malamutes, a pound female and a pound male.
The female arrived first and was a handful from about 2 to 4. We had knock-down-drag-out fights to establish who was in charge. They would end with me hanging her from her collar, great exercise picking up a dog like that. I routinely had cuts on my hands or at least large indentations from her teeth. Sometimes I would force her into the on-your-back submissive position. Regular training was done with treats. The fights diminished from every-other-day to once-a-week and then ended. When I later took the male to puppy school he was about 4 or 5 years younger , the trainer would go on about how the dog was such a handful alpha-male.
I had to laugh as she did not get to see how cowed he was at home. We had for about six months to divide the house into two sections to keep it from being destroyed by their in-door rough-housing. I learned more about unconditional love from that female Malamute than I had in the some years before she became part of my life. Hearing them howl when one left the house is a feeling of belonging. Certain breeds are not pets but family members, and have to interact with a pack.
Others can be treated like servants or toys, but they deserve more. My son now has a Samoyed. Thank you for writing about this topic. But I have heard horror stories. They had to get it certified by the state in order to keep their dogs. So even if you were to chose to get one, chances are that dog may be doomed because of local laws. Not fair to the animal. They have no chance at all in that circumstance, unless a rescue or sanctuary takes them in.
They are also large for Siberians, at the top of the breed standard. One is a dirty face. I was even at a CKC obedience trial where dogs must be purebreds to compete and someone competing who should have known better there asked in my male Siberian was a wolf.
When people make such comments, regardless of the venue, I jump right on it and tell them no, my dogs are purebred Siberian huskies, one, registered in 4 purebred registries. I explain that hybrids are a VERY BAD idea and that a male wolf would weigh about more than my Siberian does and have huge paws and jaws and teeth that can crush bone. Nice to see a Montana poster, Kelsie. I have no experience with wolf hybrids. My two children grew up with the first three dogs as their protectors. The Pit-Terrier is now my protector and burglar alarm. The wolf cross hits close to home.
She left the hospital with part of her arm gone. I cannot imagine the grief and guilt her parents must feel decades later try though they might to blame the wolfdog. The wolf-dog cross is a perfect example of fools with feelings of inadequacy and delusions of grandeur, a lousy combo bound that likely leads to another paying the price. The wolfdog you own today was just one generation ago and thousand generations before that a highly feared predator.
Until last year someone bred its mom or dad to a domesticated canine, whose own heritage a few hundred years ago to feral. A card-carrying kennel club graduate will return with a slobber-sodden floppy-necked chicken, proud as it can be, and expect you to serve a platter of Martha Stewart fried chicken for its dinner. Ego will not only damage the owner, it will cause the death of, well, really an innocent animal doing just what God intended him to do. Owning both a certain bird and a certain canine requires a separate license for each animal.
As for dingos, I have had them in a class of mine. These dingos were 18months when they left training — dingos mature at 2 years, and we never saw them again. They had committed owners, but even they admitted they were having trouble keeping the dingos contained. Unfortunately dingoes are one of three native Australian animals allowed to be kept as pets in NSW.
Account Options Sign in. Top Charts. New Arrivals. Kai, his boss whisks him away to a private island. Kai has other plans. Soon Matthew finds himself wrapped in more tentacles than he can handle. Is he willing to do whatever it takes to please his new boss? Kai has made sure there can be no escape, and that seems final when he drags Matthew down into the depths.
But when Matthew discovers what lies in store for him, will he still want to leave? Bred at His Command: Matthew thought he was safe in his new job, but his past mistakes still haunt him. He lost five million dollars from the wrong person, and not even Mr. Kai can save him. Kidnapped by His Rival: Matthew thought he had satisfied his former employer, but maybe he did his job too well. Now Mano wants to claim him as his own.
Kai gives chase, and Matthew finds himself torn between two dominating men. Reviews Review Policy. Flowing text, Original pages. Best For. Male dogs differ from male wolves by the fact that they play no role in raising their puppies, and do not kill the young of other females to increase their own reproductive success.
Wolves can interbreed with domestic dogs and produce fertile offspring. Wolf-dog hybrids are generally said to be naturally healthy animals, and are affected by less inherited diseases than most breeds of dog. Wolfdogs are usually healthier than either parent due to heterosis.
Although wolves in the wild will usually kill dogs, matings of dogs and wild wolves has been confirmed in some populations through genetic testing. As the survival of most Continental wolf packs is severely threatened, scientists fear that the creation of wolf-dog hybrid populations in the wild is a threat to the continued existence of some isolated wolf populations. Hybridization in the wild usually occurs near human habitations where wolf density is low and dogs are common.
However, extensive wolf-dog hybridization is not supported by morphological evidence, and analyses of mtDNA sequences have revealed that such matings are rare. Dewclaws are the vestigial fifth toes of the hind legs common in domestic dogs but thought absent from pure wolves, which only have four hind toes. Wolves and coyotes can interbreed and produce fertile offspring, a fact which calls into question their status as two separate species. A study showed that of coyotes collected in Maine , 22 had half or more wolf ancestry, and one was 89 percent wolf.
A theory has been proposed that the large eastern coyotes in Canada are actually hybrids of the smaller western coyotes and wolves that met and mated decades ago as the coyotes moved toward New England from their earlier western ranges. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA showed that existing Red Wolf populations are predominantly coyote in origin. Though once abundant over much of North America and Eurasia , the gray wolf inhabits a very small portion of its former range because of widespread destruction of its habitat, human encroachment of its habitat, and the resulting human-wolf encounters that sparked broad extirpation.
Wolves tend to have difficulty adapting to change, and are often referred to as an indicator species ; a species delineating an ecoregion or indicating an environmental condition such as a disease outbreak, pollution , species competition, or climate change. Wolves do not seem to be able to adapt as readily to expanding civilization the way coyotes do. While human expansion has seen an increase in the latter's numbers, it has caused a drop in those of the former. Humans historically have had a complex and varied viewpoint of wolves.
In many parts of the world, wolves were respected and revered, while in others they were feared and held in distaste. The latter viewpoint was notably accentuated in European folklore beginning in the Christian era, though wolves did feature as heraldic animals on the arms and crests of numerous noble families. Wolves also figure prominently in proverbs. The Kazakh language has up to 20 proverbs referring to wolves, while the Russian language has Wild wolves are generally timid around humans, though overall, how they react to people generally depends on prior experiences with humans  rather than inherent behaviour.
The majority of victims of unprovoked healthy wolves tend to be women and children. These attacks were well documented by trained biologists. In many sections of the United States, there was a propaganda campaign to garner support for state-sponsored bounties for killed wolves, thus resulting in an economic incentive to exaggerate the effects of wolf depredation, and likely led to false or over-enthusiastic claims of wolf attacks. Many of these accounts have been shown to be factually incorrect. Retired wolf biologist Mark McNay compiled 80 events in Alaska and Canada where wolves closely approached or attacked people, finding 39 cases of aggression by apparently healthy wolves, and 29 cases of fearless behavior by nonaggressive wolves.
Wolf depredations on livestock tend to increase in September and October when females teach their cubs how to hunt. Wolves usually attack livestock when they are grazing, though it is not uncommon for some wolves to break into fenced enclosures. Wolves will also kill sheep by attacking the throat, similar to the manner in which coyotes kill sheep. Wolf kills can be distinguished from coyote kills by the far greater damage to the underlying tissue.
Surplus killing often occurs when within the confines of human made livestock shelters.
- Triangular Teaching: A New Way of Teaching the Bible to Adults!
- Books by Francis Ashe;
- Enhance or Destroy Your Athletic Career: Relationship Lessons from an Elite Athlete.
- The Character of a Priest.
Such methods include rubber ammunition and use of guard animals. The extent of livestock losses to wolves vary regionally; from being statistically insignificant, to having critical effects on local economies. In North America, loss of livestock by wolves makes up only a small percentage of total losses. In the United States , wolf predation is low compared to other human or animal sources of livestock loss. According to the International Wolf Center, a Minnesota-based organization: To put depredation in perspective, in the wolf population was at about 1,—1,, there were an estimated , cattle and 16, sheep in Minnesota's wolf range.
During that year 26 cattle, about 0. Similarly, in an estimated 68, households owned dogs in wolf range and only 10, approximately 0. Furthermore, Jim Dutcher , a film maker who raised a captive wolf pack observed that wolves are very reluctant to try meat that they have not eaten or seen another wolf eat before possibly explaining why livestock depredation is unlikely except in cases of desperation. Greece for example reports that between April and June , sheep and goats plus cattle were killed. In it was sheep and goats, cattle and very few horses.
Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. In some areas, dogs are a major food source for wolves. Reports from Croatia indicate that dogs are killed more frequently than sheep. Wolves in Russia apparently limit feral dog populations. In Wisconsin , more compensation has been paid for dog losses than livestock. Wolves are usually hunted for sport, for their skins, to protect livestock , and in some rare cases to protect humans.
Historically, the hunting of wolves was a huge, capital and manpower intensive operation, requiring miles of netting, specialized net-carts and big drying sheds for storing and drying nets. The threat wolves posed to both livestock and people was significant enough to warrant the conscription of whole villages under threat of punishment, despite the disruption of economic activities and reduced taxes. Wolves though generally do not defend themselves as effectively as cougars or bears. One specimen nicknamed " Three Toes of Harding County " in South Dakota eluded its pursuers for 13 years before finally being caught.
The hunting of grey wolves, while originally actively endorsed in many countries, has become a controversial issue in some nations. Opponents see it as cruel , unnecessary and based on misconceptions, while proponents argue that it is vital for the conservation of game herds and as pest control. In North America, debate about wolf reintroduction is ongoing and often heated, both where reintroduction is being considered and where it has already occurred. Where wolves have been successfully reintroduced, as in the greater Yellowstone area and Idaho , reintroduction opponents continue to cite livestock predation, surplus killing , and economic hardships caused by wolves.
These reintroductions were the culmination of over two decades of research and debate. Ultimately, the economic concerns of the local ranching industry were dealt with when Defenders of Wildlife decided to establish a fund that would compensate ranchers for livestock lost to wolves, shifting the economic burden from industry to the wolf proponents themselves.
Both populations have long since met their recovery goals. Lessons learned from this ordeal may yet prove useful where wolf reintroduction continues to create a sharp divide between industry and environmental interests, as it has in Arizona where the Mexican Wolf was released beginning in Proponents claim that the food chain within the Yellowstone ecosystem has been re-ordered to deliver a banquet that favors a more varied array of species.
Prior to wolf reintroduction, high numbers of elk were believed to be linked to reductions in aspen and willow communities, which negatively affected beaver and moose. Pre-wolf coyote numbers were much larger, affecting small rodent populations, foxes, and the production of pronghorn antelope. Scavengers had slimmer pickings. Today, with wolves taking elk, reducing their numbers, and leaving more carcasses on the landscape, grizzlies and wolverines have easier access to more meat, meaning a better chance for larger litters of cubs and pups. Coyote numbers have been significantly reduced, meaning more mice and pocket gophers for foxes and avian predators like hawks and eagles.
Opponents argue that the Yellowstone reintroductions were unnecessary, as American wolves were never in danger of biological extinction. Tourism based on wolves is problematic, as wolves are elusive and very hard to spot; In , less than 0. Hunters have also cited the possibility of large ungulate population drops in within the park due to wolf predation.
This can be problematic, as wolves often leave little physical evidence of kills the size of lambs and small calves. Native American attitudes toward wolf reintroductions varied. Although the Nez Perce welcomed the reintroduction of wolves in Idaho, the Apaches of the southwestern US and Kalispells of Washington opposed any reintroduction, as wolves held little spiritual significance in their cultures. The British Government signed conventions in the s and s agreeing to consider reintroducing wolves and to promote public awareness about them. Being party to European conventions, the British government is obliged to study the desirability of reintroducing extinct species and to consider reintroducing wolves.
Although there are indications that wolves are recolonizing areas in Western Europe, they are unable to return to their former ranges in Britain without active human assistance. The Scottish Highlands are one of the few large areas in western Europe with a relatively small human population, thus ensuring that wolves would suffer little disturbance from human activity. One popular argument in favour of the reintroduction is that the Highlands' Red Deer populations have overgrown.
A reintroduction of wolves would aid in keeping their numbers down, thus allowing native flora some respite. Other arguments include the generation of income and local employment in the Highlands through wolf-related ecotourism. This could replace the declining and uneconomical Highland sheep industry. Many countries, states and local regions have specific regulations governing the acquisition and management of wolves.
In Britain, the keeping of wolves is strictly controlled under the Dangerous Wild Animals Act and a licence is needed to own one. In the United States, the keeping of pure wolves is prohibited by the U. Endangered Species Act of Captive wolf pups are usually taken from their mother at the age of 14 days, preferably no later than 21 days.
Wolf pups typically stop responding to socialization at the age of 19 days, as opposed to dogs which can still be socialised at the age of 10 weeks. Failure to do so can result in the pups developing cataracts. As adults, wolves have been shown, most of the time, to be largely unpredictable, and will sometimes display aggressive behaviour toward small animals and children. Pure wolves can never be fully trusted with children because, unlike dogs, they lack any alteration of their predatory behavior.
These behaviors are genetically encoded and thus cannot be eliminated by socialization or training.
The Tragedy of Wolf Dogs
At best, these inherent behaviours can only be suppressed. They usually vacate rooms or hide when a new person enters the establishment. Wolves may defend their food against people, and react violently to people trying to remove it. Because of this, captive wolves typically do not cope well in urban areas. They will instinctively challenge their owner for pack status after reaching adult age. Some wildlife centres housing captive wolves prohibit handlers from entering wolf enclosures if they happen to have a cold or other vulnerability which the wolves can detect.
Though wolves are trainable, they lack the same degree of tractability seen in dogs. They are generally not as responsive as dogs are to coercive techniques involving fear, aversive stimuli and force. Generally, far more work is required to obtain the same degree of reliability seen in most dogs.
- Blue Hydrangeas: an Alzheimers love story.
- More Books by Elaine Cara.
- Gedichte und Lieder (German Edition).
- Wolves | Psychology Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia.
- The Tragedy of Wolf Dogs!
Even then, once a certain behavior has been repeated several times, wolves may get bored and ignore subsequent commands. Wolves are most responsive toward positive conditioning and rewards,  though simple praise is not sufficient as in most dogs. To prevent the wolf jumping over the enclosure, fences are specified to be necessarily at least 2m 6 ft high and needing an overhang at the top. An inside skirt buried below ground is also required to prevent tunnelling. Some pet wolves are euthanised or might be released into the wild where they are likely to starve or be killed by resident wolf packs in regions where they are still present.
Abandoned or escaped captive wolves can be more destructive and pose a greater danger to humans and livestock than wild wolves, seeing as their habituation to humans causes them to lose their natural shyness. Captive wolves have also been shown to be largely unsuitable for working as dogs do. German wolf biologist Erik Zimen once attempted to form a dog sled team composed entirely of pure wolves.
The attempt proved to be a complete failure, as the wolves were far more prone to fighting than sled dogs and ignored most commands. However, the experiment proved a failure and was discontinued due to the wolves' inability to follow even basic commands. Tests undertaken in the Perm Institute of Interior Forces in Russia demonstrated that high content hybrids took seconds to track down a target in training sessions, whereas ordinary police dogs took minutes.
Their success has led to plans to use them as police dogs. Template:Canidae nav. Sign In Don't have an account? Contents [ show ]. See also: Dog communication. Wolf howl recording noicon Rallying noicon European wolves rallying — KB Problems playing the files? See media help. Canis lupus. IUCN Retrieved on Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern. Wolves: The great travelers of evolution. International Wolf 2 4 :3 - 7. Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog.
Nature : — Endangered Species Handbook. Animal Welfare Institute. URL accessed on Wolves in Russia: Anxiety throughout the ages , pp. Of wolves and men , pp. Wolves: Behaviour, Ecology and Conservation , Wolf Restoration in the Adirondacks? Midwest Region. Fish and Wildlife Service. Paul Rincon. BBC online. Corwin's Carnival of Creatures.
Animal Planet. The Velvet Claw , pp. Il Lupo in Provincia di Arezzo. Wolf Pup Development. Wolf Basics. International Wolf Center. Harrington, Paul C. Paquet The Domestic Dog; its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people , p World of the Wolf. Natural Worlds. National Geographic. Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
Related Claimed by the Wolf (Reluctant Breeding)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved