Proportional representation was soon abolished in Northern Ireland, where the dominant unionists wanted to maintain a polarised society, but despite the circumstances of its introduction it was retained in the south. In such a reduced area their majority would be larger and they imagined that their position would be more secure. They had never sought devolved government, but once it had been imposed they appreciated its advantages.
They believed that it protected them not only against nationalists both north and south but also against British politicians who might betray them in the future—as had happened in the past. But the form that it took was facilitated by the abstention of almost all the Irish nationalist MPs, who had formed their own parliament in Dublin. There is little reason to think that unionists would have responded to overtures from Irish nationalists. Home rule for southern Ireland never came into effect, but elections for a Belfast parliament took place in May As predicted and intended, the Unionists won a large majority; the Unionist leader James Craig took office as prime minister, and over the next few months powers were transferred from London to Belfast.
Only when the interests of Ulster unionists had been satisfied did Lloyd George turn his attention to Irish nationalists, and by then conditions in southern Ireland had been transformed. The general election in December widened the franchise and gave women over 30 the vote for the first time. They later formed a government that attempted to run the country and—in so far as was possible—to act as if British rule no longer existed. Unsurprisingly, the British paid no attention to Irish claims, and the actions of some radical republicans soon ensured a return to war.
It was the work of a small number of people in certain parts of the country—particularly in Dublin, Cork and Tipperary. But, following the example of the Easter rebels, they succeeded in polarising the country, and they forced many moderate nationalists to support radical men and radical measures.helwaizygpieti.cf/ovid/the-best-response-an-essay-from.pdf
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Both sides resorted to terror, but it was British actions and British forces that provoked a far greater revulsion. By now Ireland was seen as a millstone and a nuisance, and the British were prepared to concede vastly more than had ever been offered to Irish nationalists in the past. Recognition of a republic was inconceivable because that would represent British defeat and humiliation, but most other Irish demands were granted. Nonetheless, in the end the Irish delegation led by Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins signed the treaty, on the grounds that it was the best deal that they were likely to secure in the circumstances of the time.
Either they felt that partition was already an established fact and that nothing could be done, or they assumed that the boundary commission clause would take care of the question. Some people were later embarrassed by this omission and tried to rewrite the record. De Valera went into opposition, but the strongest opposition to the treaty came not from politicians but from elements in the IRA.
Some soldiers were unwilling to accept civilian authority. Despite elections in June , which revealed the popularity of the treaty 78 per cent of the first-preference votes were for candidates who supported it , civil war broke out soon afterwards. The resulting struggle degenerated into a bloodier and more savage conflict than the recent war against the British, and both sides resorted to atrocities.
But there was no swing of opinion against the government as had happened after and in —21, and ultimately the republicans laid down their arms. The civil war was only one factor among several that allowed time to elapse before the boundary commission was established, and not until late was it ready to complete its report.
The chairman South African jurist Richard Feetham, who was appointed by the British government had the casting vote, and predictably he took a conservative and narrowly legal view of the changes that might be made to the border. Despite the hopes of the Irish delegation in the treaty negotiations, and despite the fact that one third of the population of Northern Ireland wished to join the Free State, the proposed amendments were minimal.
To the shock of nationalists, it was even suggested that the Free State should hand over some of its territory. Ultimately the three governments decided that the border between North and South would remain unchanged. Ulster unionists, whose opposition to home rule before the war had begun the pattern of militarising Irish life, were able to dominate a home rule Northern Ireland for decades to come.
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Login Subscribe To renew a subscription please login first. Search for:. That field of glory. I have also the definite duty to add that a further step in the relations with Moscow would have catastrophic repercussions in Italy, where the unanimity of anti-Bolshevik feeling is absolute, granite-hard, and unbreakable. Permit me to think that this will not happen. The solution of your Lebensraum is in Russia, and nowhere else The day when we shall have demolished Bolshevism we shall have kept faith with both our revolutions.
Then it will be the turn of the great democracies, who will not be able to survive the cancer which gnaws them Attributed [ edit ] Fascism should more properly be called corporatism, since it is the merger of state and corporate power. This quote spread rapidly in the United States after appearing in a column by Molly Ivins 24 November It is repeated often and sometimes attributed to the "Fascism" entry in the Enciclopedia Italiana. However hard copies of the Enciclopedia Italiana exist in numerous libraries and the alleged quote is not in the text, nor is there anything that would support the alleged quote.
A vaguely similar statement does appear in Doctrine of Fascism. We are, in other words, a state which controls all forces acting in nature. During this period the other executive agency heads continued to address the Secretary of the Navy on matters of mutual concern, such as Secretary of War Robert Lincoln's request of December 13, , for the Navy's cooperation in the organization and conduct of the Greely Expedition to the Arctic.
Letters received from the President and executive agencies for the period April are among those described in entry Arranged for the most part by squadron and thereunder chronologically. There is overlapping for periods when there was a change of command, because a commanding officer's letters from the time of his appointment until the time he returned home following release from command or otherwise ceased all connection with the squadron were filed together. Some volumes have letters from officers during periods of successive commands. There are indexes or lists of contents in most of the volumes.
There are many orders, maps, lists, diplomatic communications and reports enclosed with the letters. All of these squadrons, except the West India Squadron, were still in existence in when the Navy Department began this series of records. The African Squadron was established in and the Eastern Squadron in In addition, three detachments of smaller vessels were formed; the Mortar Flotilla, the James River Flotilla, and the Potomac Flotilla. The letters from commanding officers of these flotillas were filed with the letters from commanding officers of squadrons with the exception that letters from the commanding officers of the Potomac Flotilla , October December , are with records described in entry By the end of , all of these Civil War squadrons and flotillas had ceased to exist.
In the postwar period, the Pacific Squadron, the only prewar squadron to survive the Civil War intact, underwent a number of organizational changes, becoming successively the North Pacific and South Pacific Squadrons, the Pacific Station divided into a Northern and Southern Squadron and later a North Pacific and South Pacific Station, and finally the Pacific Station without divisions. The Gulf Squadron was discontinued in In the Training Squadron was established to train apprentice seamen.
The letters and the enclosed maps, reports, orders, newspaper clippings, charts, and treaties relate to diplomatic negotiations with other nations, intelligence gathering around the world, protection of Americans in foreign places, the assignment and deployment of ships in the squadrons, reports of captures or naval engagements, reports of war casualties or illnesses, and other naval activities at sea. Letters of the African and Home Squadrons include descriptions of the antislavery efforts of the U.
Reports from the Civil War blockading squadrons relate to joint military operations with the Army, battles with the Confederate Navy, and shore operations launched from ships. For other letters received from commanding officers of squadrons, see entry For registers to some squadrons, see entries There are three supplemental volumes for letters apparently missed when the original binding was done. There are two letters from January There are name and subject indexes in most of the volumes. Much of the series consists of letters and a few telegrams relating to procurement of supplies, equipment, and ordnance; enlistment of naval personnel; appointment of civilian employees; construction, repair, and lay up of vessels; use of vessels for defense; medical care; and inventions.
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Naval Academy is the subject of some letters after from the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography and the Bureau of Navigation. From to , the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography had responsibility for overseeing administrative and financial affairs at the Academy, and from on, the Bureau of Navigation had much of this responsibility.
Also included are reports of boards on which bureau heads served, examples of which are the reports made in April and May by a board composed of the Chiefs of the Bureaus of Construction and Repair and Yards and Docks, Engineer-in-Chief of the Navy Benjamin F. Isherwood, and Naval Constructor Edward Hartt regarding the use of riverboats for defensive purposes and the use of armored ships for coastal and harbor defense. Enclosures to the letters include newspaper clippings, contracts, circulars, pamphlets, and a few drawings and sketches.
For letters sent to the bureaus during the same period, see entry Jan 1, Nov. Originally there were 28 volumes. In the process of rebinding, it was necessary to divide eight of the volumes into two parts. There are name indexes for all of the volumes except the last one: for the divided volumes, the index for both parts is at the beginning of the first part.
Navy agents purchased and disbursed supplies. Naval storekeepers were civilian employees of the Navy Department, but commissioned and warrant officers did sometimes serve as temporary storekeepers in foreign ports. They were in charge of stores at stations and yards and distributed the stores to vessels and to the departments at the installation. Serving under the direction of the commanding officer of the installation, the storekeeper made requisitions upon Navy agents for the purchase of supplies needed and not received at the installation.
Most of these letters are from Navy agents and concern appointments to office, purchase and distribution of supplies, and payments to creditors. Enclosures include oaths of office, declarations of citizenships, receipts for supplies, lists of persons entitled to prize money, monthly and quarterly returns of expenditures, materials and labor, abstracts of payments, and newspaper clippings.
For earlier letters, see entry The reports on technical matters, submitted either to the Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repair and forwarded to the Secretary or directly to the Secretary, concern examinations of boilers, engines, steam pumps, percussion gages, and various inventions proposed by the Engineer-in-Chief or chief engineers for use by the Navy. Several drawings are included with the reports. The letters relate to pay, uniforms, candidates for admission to the Engineer Corps, promotions, and other personnel matters.
Most of the letters in this volume were signed or endorsed by Engineer-in-Chief Charles H. Haswell, and the small number remaining, by Benjamin F. Isherwood and Charles B. Additional letters and reports for earlier and later time periods are described in entry Letters Received From the Superintendent of the U. Arranged for the most part chronologically in volumes numbered , , , and three unnumbered volumes.
Five of the original 50 volumes were divided into two parts in the process of rebinding. There is one supplemental volume for letters apparently missed during the original binding. There are name or name and subject indexes in most of the volumes.
For the divided volumes, the indexes are at the beginning of the first parts. Some volumes also have lists of letters. These letters from the Superintendent of the Academy known as Naval School until July relate to admission policy, academic courses, rules and regulations governing discipline, the academic staff and other civilian personnel, naval officers assigned to the Academy, removal of the Academy to Newport, RI, during the Civil War, charges of disloyalty, local political sentiment, enlargement of the Academy after its return to Annapolis, and many other subjects.
The Superintendent also forwarded reports of various kinds and letters for or on behalf of midshipmen and cadets and applicants. Included are reports of the Board of Visitors, boards for the examination of midshipmen, investigative boards, summer cruises, relative standing and deficiencies of midshipmen or cadets, and monthly, quarterly, and final class reports.
During the period , the Secretary sometimes referred letters to the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, which supervised Academy affairs. Letters received from the first Superintendent of the Academy, Comdr. Franklin Buchanan, from September to December , are described in entry Letters Received Relating to the Naval Asylum. There is a name index that includes brief descriptions of the individual letters. Included are letters from or on behalf of men seeking admission to the Asylum, from men wishing to be discharged and granted a pension, and from the Governor of the Asylum relating chiefly to individual residents.
For other letters received relating to the Naval Asylum, see entries 54 and Arranged by year, thereunder by name of yard or station, and thereunder chronologically. There are no letters for There are name indexes, name and subject indexes, or lists of letters in most of the volumes. Most of the letters concern arrivals, departures, and trial runs of vessels; recruitment, transfer, and discharge of enlisted men; employment of civilian personnel; deaths; and the apprehension of deserters.
Other letters relate to such unusual occurrences as the June explosion in the laboratory at the Washington Navy Yard of fireworks being prepared for the celebration of the laying of the cornerstone of the Washington Monument and the visit of Grand Duke Alexis of Russia to the Norfolk Navy Yard. Enclosures include reports of boards of investigations, reports concerning prisoners and civilians employed at the yards, and letters from officers commanding vessels at the yards.
They include letters pertaining to the evacuation and destruction of Government property at Norfolk Gosport Navy Yard in April and reports of captures of Confederate vessels and of arrivals of contraband at the yards and stations. For earlier letters from commandants of yards and stations, see entry For letters for the period , during which civilians commanded the yards, see entry Letters received in from the commanding officers of naval stations at New London and Key West and the torpedo station at Newport are with the letters received from the commanding officer of the Training Squadron see entry Consul at Rio de Janeiro.
These letters in support of Parks's reinstatement as consul were referred by the Secretary of State. They were received from the Board of Underwriters of New York City, merchants, shipowners, shipmasters, and foreign diplomatic officials. Parks was recalled after he removed the masters of four U. Included is a pamphlet defending Parks. There are letters for the years and only. There are name indexes in the individual volumes. Most of the letters are registered in the volumes described in entry These are letters that seem to have been missed when the records described in entries , 43 , , 51 , and 54 were bound.
Most of the letters are from highBranking officers such as admirals and captains. Many of the letters relate to disciplinary actions, accusations about officers and enlisted men, and court-martial charges. Apparently other letters bound in this manner were later removed and incorporated with the records in the Area and Subject Files entries and There are no letters from the vice admiral until after that grade was established on December 21, 13 Stat.
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There are name indexes, some with brief descriptions of each letter, in the individual volumes. Most of the letters concern such matters as transfers of crew, trial runs of vessels, and disposition of prize vessels. There are also many letters from officers acknowledging receipt of orders, requesting transfers or promotions, or reporting on their physical condition. Some letters were written by officers in their capacities as presidents of court-martial boards. There are letters from several officers on the retired list, including Como.
Henry Eagle, a U. Francis H. Gregory, superintending the construction of ironclads at the New York Navy Yard. Civil War letters include commendations of naval personnel and the recommendation for medals. John A. Other letters from admirals for this period are with the letters received from commanding officers of squadrons see entry For earlier and later letters from captains, see entry For later letters from admirals and commodores, see entry The letters are from the Senior Officer of the Board, Como.
William B. Shubrick, commenting on inventions and plans submitted for possible use by the Navy and making recommendations for and against their adoption. An ironclad steamer, a floating battery and ram for harbor defense, an "invulnerable gunboat" for sea and river service, a submarine cylinder bomb, and other proposals for improvements in ordnance were considered. All of these letters appear to be negative comments; each letter ends in "not recommended" or "not practical". There are copies of these reports in the minutes of the board see entry May 12, July 27, Included are many letters from the War Department Adjutant General, Commissary General of Prisoners, and Commissioner for the Exchange of Prisoners concerning the locations at which Union naval prisoners were held and arrangements for their exchange.
They are frequently accompanied by lists of Union naval prisoners paroled by the Confederates, announced as exchanged, or still held in the South. Also included are letters from officers whose vessels were captured by the Confederates, Union naval personnel exchanged by the Confederates or who escaped from Confederate prisons, Union officers requesting their early exchange, and family members inquiring about Union prisoners of war. There are also some extracts of declarations of exchange of prisoners, general orders concerning exchanges, newspapers clippings, and a typewritten list of Union naval officers captured during and and released at Aiken's Landing on October 18, Some of the letters from prisoners describe the treatment received or conditions at POW camps.
Others describe the naval engagement in which they were captured. Many of the letters are from men reporting that they have arrived home following their release or escape from Southern prisons. In these letters, the commission gave its findings on the practicality of various devices and plans submitted by private inventors to the Navy Department.
A torpedo that could be used underwater at the end of a boom, a binocular telescope, a machine for removing piles and chains from harbors, and a plan for iron-plating naval vessels were just some of the inventions and plans considered. Other copies of some of the reports are among the records of the commission see entries The individual volumes have name indexes, some of which give brief descriptions of the content of each letter. Included are letters from officers serving on various boards, the Superintendent of the Naval Observatory, the Governor of the Naval Asylum, port admirals, and commandants of navy yards and naval stations.
Many of these officers were on the retired list. The letters relate for the most part to administrative and personnel matters, but there are letters and reports from rear admirals serving on examining boards, boards of inspection, and on ad hoc boards such as the board appointed by the Secretary to consider the establishment of a postgraduate school for training naval officers.
Many of the letters received from rear admirals at sea during this time period are among the letters received from commanding officers of squadrons see entry Most of the letters from officers serving as commandants of navy yards and naval stations for this and later time periods are described in entry There are earlier admiral and commodore letters in entries 53 and For later letters from admirals and commodores, see entries 60 and Arranged chronologically and numbered in sequence from 1 to There is a list of letters giving subjects.
These letters were written or forwarded by Commodore John M. They relate to arrivals and departures of vessels, including a visit of French Navy vessels, the condition of vessels, personnel matters, precautions against yellow fever, political conditions in Beaufort, SC, and other subjects. For later letters from Clitz in the same capacity, see entry M Cipher Messages Received and Translated.
Arranged chronologically in volumes numbered Indexes to names of persons, squadrons, vessels, and installations give a brief description of each message. The first five volumes contain press copies; the sixth volume contains carbon copies. Nearly all messages were sent by officers in command of squadrons or vessels stationed in the South Atlantic, Caribbean, and the Pacific.
Most of the messages were received directly by the Secretary's office; the remainder were received by the Bureau of Navigation and forwarded to the Secretary. The first volume volume 2 , which covers the Spanish-American War period, includes messages from Capt. William T. Sampson, commander of the U. Montgomery Sicard, commander of the U. Messages from Adm. George Dewey at Hong Kong transmit intelligence regarding activities of the Spanish fleet in the Pacific, the blockade of Manila, and the procurement of fuel and supplies for fleet vessels. Other messages provide information concerning the activities of representatives of the Spanish Government in London and Paris.
Messages in the next three volumes transmit information concerning the activities of the French and German Governments, national forces, and insurgent groups in Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and other parts of Latin America for the period A few messages reporting on the political situation in other parts of the world, such as relations between the Turks and Armenians and the condition of Armenian refugees in , are also copied.
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There are also a few messages from the commanding officers of the Pacific Reserve Fleet and the Pacific Torpedo Flotilla. For additional messages relating to disturbances in Santo Domingo, Ecuador, Cuba, Honduras, China and other countries, see the correspondence described in entries For translations of earlier ciphers received and ciphers sent by the Secretary of the Navy, see entry One report consists of typed press copies of a December 19, response of the Secretary of the Navy to a request from the Commissioner of Pensions for information that would assist in the adjudication of bounty land claims.
In particular the Commissioner wanted to distinguish between service in the war with the Seminoles of Florida, that was merely cooperation given the Army by the Navy and Marine Corps as separate services and service detached from the Navy and "incorporated with the Army or under its immediate command. Many of the reports relate to Lt. John Mclaughlin. The reports also mention U. Navy ships that surveyed the Florida Coast. Correspondence Concerning Construction of New Vessels. This volume includes copies of letters from Congress, the Naval Advisory Board, and Bureau of Construction and Repair, with copies of draft replies.
Enclosed with the letters are tables, lists, clippings, printed notices, and other records some in draft form relating primarily to plans and specifications for and costs of construction of the cruisers Atlanta, Boston, and Chicago and the dispatch boat Dolphin. The volume was probably compiled by Secretary of the Navy William E. Most of the documents have penciled comments with the initials "W. Arranged by class of vessel and thereunder by vessel. The volume relating to third-rate vessels is for January November , and that relating to fourth-rate vessels is for July-December Copied are the endorsements of the Secretary of the Navy and the Chief Clerk on correspondence received from the bureaus concerning ship repairs, memorandums concerning the repairs being performed on vessels, letters appointing naval officers to boards of survey for naval vessels and the reports of these boards, and correspondence between the commandants of navy yards and naval constructors.
The reports and memorandums sometimes include estimates of the costs of the repairs and equipment. May Oct. The series contains copies of letters, reports, endorsements, memorandums, lists, orders, a printed calendar of events, newspaper articles, and other records concerning the Navy's participation in the celebration of the th anniversary of the discovery of the Hudson River by Henry Hudson and the th anniversary of the first successful use of a steamboat. Memorandums Sent by the Aide for Operations. These are carbon copies of memorandums commenting on papers referred by other aides or officials of the Navy Department.
Changes to Navy Regulation Number 6 of November 18, , announced the appointment of four aides to assist the Secretary of the Navy: aides for operations, materials, personnel, and inspections. In these positions were discontinued. There are some memorandums received and occasionally copies of documents referred for comment. Examples of the many subjects dealt with are military characteristics of submarines and destroyers, number and kind of capital ships being built by Japan and other foreign powers, issuance of Navy Department general orders and regulations, use of the cipher code by the Navy, and the design of boat clothes for the President and the Secretary and Assistant Secretary of the Navy.
The correspondence that these memorandums accompanied is interspersed among the general correspondence of Record Groups 24, 38, 80, and The application of the term "directives" to general orders and circulars issued by the Navy Department is of recent origin. Meaning any communication that initiates or governs action, conduct, or procedure, it accurately describes most of the Navy Department general orders and circulars sent by the Secretary of the Navy to commanding officers of ships, squadrons, yards, and stations and to other naval officers between and Throughout most of the period , it appears that the titles "general order," "naval general order," and "general naval order" were used interchangeably.
The title "naval general order" was most frequently used between and The general orders issued before were unnumbered and usually not printed, but beginning in they were numbered continuously within series with the exception of a small number of unnumbered orders and general orders for the period and printed. Beginning in the s other directives were issued by the Secretary's office in addition to the general orders and circulars, including general court-martial orders, special orders, U.
Navy regulation circulars, and special circulars. Entries for individual directives give date, subject, and, when applicable, number. The entries are grouped in the following sections. General orders, Jan. Arranged in several sets, to a considerable extent by type of copy, and thereunder for the most part chronologically. The volumes contain handwritten, printed, and press copies of general orders, special orders, circulars, special circulars, general court-martial orders, departmental orders, U.
Navy regulation circulars, and other directives issued by the Secretary of the Navy. They prescribed policy in such matters as uniform dress, pay, other financial matters, and recruitment and discharge; gave instructions concerning the performance of duties; announced deaths of and tributes to high-ranking naval officers and other prominent persons, convening and proceedings of courts-martial, examinations for promotions, appointments, meetings and findings of boards; and transmitted honors and awards, commissions, acts of Congress, and Presidential messages.
Occasionally directives issued by the bureaus are included. Each set of directives has omissions, but together they are the most complete compilation of directives among Navy Department records in the National Archives. Pre-Civil War U. Navy muster rolls generally include the names of individual officers and crew members, the date and place of their appearance on board, their rank or rating, their ship number muster number , and the date of muster. If an individual was no longer on board or at the shore establishment yard or station , the roll indicates whether he was detached D , dead DD , or had deserted R and includes the date, place, and the reason for the absence.
The muster rolls usually include not only the names of officers and of the crew of the vessel, yard, or station but also the names of clerks, marines, supernumeraries, prisoners of war, recruits and recruiting officers, and the personnel on furlough, at rendezvous, and sometimes passengers on board vessels. Navy payrolls generally contain the names of officers and crew members, their rank or rating, their muster number, the date of the commencement of their term of service or of the settlement period, their terms of service, the amount of pay due for the period of settlement, and other related details.
They usually include similar information for marines and supernumeraries. Combined muster rolls and payrolls generally include the same kind of information found in the muster rolls and in addition contain details relating to pay. Most combined muster rolls and payrolls are for vessels and date between and , although there are a few dated as late as Both payrolls and muster rolls were signed by the commanding officer and by the purser of the ship or station. The earliest known reference to Navy muster rolls and payrolls is in a letter sent to Capt. These regulations relating to pay and muster rolls were amplified by a later act of April 23, 2 Stat.
Apparently these regulations were not followed by all officers of the Navy, including commanding officers of navy yards and stations after , as there were many circulars issued by the Navy Department requesting officers to submit pay rolls and muster rolls. The regulations relating to pay and muster rolls were changed by a circular of the Navy Department, June 18, , which states:. Before sailing you will transmit to the Department a complete. Muster roll of the Officers and men that have been transferred. With the date of their expirations of service annexed. On the first of every second month thereafter, you will cause lists to be made showing all deaths, desertions, discharges, transfers, enlistments and punishments that have taken place since the date of the last returns.
Arranged for the most part according to physical format bound by single ship, bound together with other ships, miscellaneous bound and unbound , thereunder alphabetically by name of ship, often thereunder by type of roll, and thereunder chronologically. There are rolls of single vessels bound in one or more volumes, volumes, ; rolls of several vessels bound in one volume, 18 volumes, ; 7 volumes "miscellaneous" , that are unarranged; and unbound rolls, If there are two or more volumes for a vessel, usually the muster rolls and payrolls are bound separately.
A few of the volumes have typed name indexes. On each muster roll or payroll, names are arranged by ship muster number. On most rolls the commanding officer's name is first, followed by the other officers, clerks, and then enlisted men. Usually, marines and supernumeraries are on separate rolls. In rare cases, names are arranged alphabetically. There are very few muster or payrolls for the Mexican War period.
Filed with the muster rolls and payrolls are lists of officers and crews, receipt rolls, accounts, registers of allotments, reports and returns of officers and crews, and various types of abstracts. Office clerks substituted these records when no muster roll or payroll was available for a vessel for a particular timespan.
Some of the rolls are only for officers, the crew, or marine guards. For a list of rolls, see Appendix C. In the list of muster rolls and payrolls, numbers placed in parentheses are used to distinguish between identically named vessels. Some rolls are in the Subject File see entry Additional Marine Corps muster rolls are in Records of the U. Marine Corps, Record Group Divided into bound rolls, , and unbound rolls, and Thereunder arranged for the most part alphabetically by name of shore establishment and thereunder chronologically.
Usually, if there is only one volume for a yard or station, there are muster rolls and payrolls bound together. If there is more than one volume, usually the muster rolls and payrolls are bound in separate volumes. For a list of rolls, see Appendix D. In addition to the officers and crews assigned to the yard or station, other naval personnel who were temporarily there or who were unassigned were sometimes carried on the rolls.
These include recruits, officers and men serving on vessels that were to take part in expeditions, and occasionally officers and men attached to a vessel at a yard or station or to a flotilla. Also in this series are reports and returns, receipt rolls, accounts, articles of agreement, and various kinds of lists that were kept in place of or in addition to the muster rolls and payrolls. Many of the rolls in this series have the Subject File marking "NA," and were probably segregated from that series because of their size.
A few rolls still remain in the Subject File see entry It is not known whether rolls for the missing period exist. Muster rolls of mechanics and laborers, Payrolls of mechanics and laborers employed, and n. Payrolls of workmen on drydock, List of men not paid on rolls, List of laborers discharged on drydock, Lists of personnel employed by the year, and Payrolls of mechanics and laborers, , , and n.
Lists of personnel employed by the year, Payrolls of persons employed by the Bureau of Construction and Repair on Jeanette, Payrolls of persons employed by the Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting on Jeanette, and n. Payrolls of persons employed by the Bureau of Steam Engineering on Jeanette, Payrolls of mechanics and laborers, and n. Payrolls of persons employed by the Bureau of Ordnance, Payroll of persons employed by the Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, Payrolls of mechanics and laborers employed, Payrolls of employees, Payrolls and receipt rolls of mechanics and laborers, Reports of work done, Payrolls and receipt rolls of draughtsmen and workmen, List of employees, n.
Lists of personnel employed by the year, and n. Muster rolls and payrolls of mechanics and laborers, , Receipt rolls of mechanics and laborers, and These are lists of officers and sometimes passengers on board vessels departing for or returning from cruises to the West Indies, South America, the Pacific, and the Mediterranean. There is also information concerning places and dates of departures and returns. For some vessels there is no information. Arranged by class of ship with the largest classes first.
There is a name index to vessels in the first volume. Only the names and ranks of officers are given. The second volume nearly duplicates information in the first volume. Divided into two slightly overlapping time periods. Returns, , are arranged by name of establishment, thereunder divided into officers and civilians, and thereunder arranged chronologically.
For returns are arranged chronologically, for the most part by year, thereunder by establishment, and thereunder divided into officers and civilians. A supplemental volume for is at the end of the series. For officers, the returns usually give name, rank, type of duty or office to which assigned, and an indication of whether awaiting orders.
The information for civilians includes name, rating, department in which employed, date of appointment, and annual salary. July Jan. Arranged for the most part in five overlapping chronological periods and thereunder alphabetically by name of vessel. Most of the lists for the period July BFebruary 25 volumes are in one alphabetical sequence. There are smaller sets for the periods July June 3 volumes , September January 3 volumes , December December 1 volume , and January March 1 volume.
The overlapping probably was a result of erratic binding procedures.
Related British Executions. Volume Five 1921 to 1925
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